NINDS CDE Notice of Copyright
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Token Test.
Supplemental: Stroke and Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)
|Short Description of Instrument||
Purpose: The Token Test is used to assess auditory comprehension in persons with developmental and acquired disorders affecting language. The examinee provides a gestural response in response to a verbal command.
The Token Test is excellent for detecting mild auditory comprehension deficits, but less useful for assessing other aspects of auditory comprehension (such as semantic comprehension) or functional communication.
|Scoring and Psychometric Properties||
Scoring: The test is scored on a scale of 0–163. The mean score for adults (and adolescent 14 years or older) is 161. Scores lower than 157 are virtually absent in a normal adult population.
Psychometric Properties: The test shows excellent and good inter-rater reliability, while some parts have lower coefficients.
De Renzi E, Vignolo LA. The token test: A sensitive test to detect receptive disturbances in aphasics. Brain 1962;85:665–678.
Alkhamra RA, Al-Jazi AB. Validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for children. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2016 Mar;51(2):183-91.
Becker F, Reinvang I. Event-related potentials indicate bi-hemispherical changes in speech sound processing during aphasia rehabilitation. J Rehabil Med. 2007;39:658–661.
Franceschini M, Agosti M, Cantagallo A, Sale P, Mancuso M, Buccino G. Mirror neurons: action observation treatment as a tool in stroke rehabilitation. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2010;46:517-523.
Hula W, Doyle PJ, McNeil MR, Mikolic JM. Rasch modeling of revised token test performance: validity and sensitivity to change. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2006 Feb;49(1):27-46.
McNeil MR, Pratt SR, Szuminsky N, Sung JE, Fossett TR, Fassbinder W, Lim KY. Reliability and validity of the computerized Revised Token Test: comparison of reading and listening versions in persons with and without aphasia. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2015
Paci M, Lorenzini C, Fioravanti E, Poli C, Lombardi B. Reliability of the
36-item version of the Token Test in patients with poststroke aphasia. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2015 Oct;22(5):374-6.
Tuokko H, Woodward TS. Development and validation of a demographic correction system for neuropsychological measures used in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1996;18:479–616.
Vanbellingen T, Kersten B, Van de Winckel A, Bellion M, Baronti F, Muri R, Bohlhalter. A new bedside test of gestures in stroke: the apraxia screen of TULIA (AST). J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 2011;82:389-392.
Willinger U, Schmoeger M, Deckert M, Eisenwort B, Loader B, Hofmair A, Auff E. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test. J Psycholinguist Res. 2017 Oct;46(5):1237-1247.