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Word Reading Subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-4)
 Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Pearson - WRAT-4 or WRAT-5
NeuroRehab Supplemental - Highly Recommended
Recommendations for Use: Indicated for studies requiring an estimate of premorbid functioning or premorbid verbal intelligence.
  • For studies assessing premorbid functioning, it is recommended that either the Test of Premorbid Functioning (TOPF) or the Word Reading Subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-4) is used. See comments and special instructions.
It is not recommended for use in Aphasia, Alexia, Dyslexia, Speech-Language Impairment
Supplemental-Highly Recommended: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)
Supplemental: Sport-Related Concussion (SRC) and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Short Description of Instrument
The Wide-Range Achievement Test (WRAT-4) measures basic academic skills such as: reading, mathematics and spelling necessary for effective learning, communication and thinking.
Material is read by subject. Requires minimal training. Administration time is 10 minutes.
Reading recognition has been identified as a brief, but effective, measurement of academic skills and intelligence that is not impacted by TBI in most cases.
The Word Reading Subtest measures letter naming and identification and word pronunciation and recognition.
Comments/Special Instructions
NeuroRehab Specific: The WRAT, historically, has been very widely used as, at one time, it was one of the very few reading tests that had normative data for adults. The relative use compared to the WTAR and TOPF is not directly known, though the latter tests have seen increased use consistently in the past 20 years.  Administration of the full WRAT battery is not recommended unless there are questions regarding spelling and math abilities. Only the word reading test should be used for IQ estimation.
The TOPF is explicitly designed to not be phonologically decoded and more directly measures vocabulary than reading ability, while the WRAT-IV uses phonologically decodable words and is designed to measure reading ability. The other primary difference between the tests is that the TOPF was co-normed and calibrated to the exact mean of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The WRAT is calibrated with a sample starting off at a higher or lower than 100 ability level relative to the mean, this depends on the version. Test of Premorbid Functioning is best compared to the WRAT, but the WRAT-IV will be included as an alternative due to its legacy status and the amount of existing data collected.
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: Raw score: 0-70 Standard Score: 55-145
Psychometric Properties: Internal consistency .98, retest reliability .84, large normative sample
Strengths: Currently available in paper and digital formats, easy to administer, long-history of use in psychological assessment.
Weaknesses: More of a direct measure of phonological decoding that in some individuals may result in less accurate estimation of premorbid IQ. The WRAT4/5 is not co-normed with any intellectual assessment and therefore the accuracy of the predictions will be affected by cohort differences which could vary by 3-6 IQ points depending on the version utilized.
Wilkinson GS, Robertson GJ. Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Professional Manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, 2006.
Document last updated January 2022