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The Combat Exposure Scale (CES)
The instrument is available here: PLEASE CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION
Supplemental: Acute Hospitalized, Concussion/Mild TBI, Epidemiology, Moderate/Severe TBI: Rehabilitation Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Short Description of Instrument
The Combat Exposure Scale (CES) is used in military populations to assess level of exposure to wartime stressors. It is a 7-item self-report measure, with items scored on a 5-point frequency; 5-point duration; 4-point frequency; or 4-point degrees of loss scale.

Scores are weighted and summed to a total score between 0 and 41, where scores closer to zero represent light combat, and scores closer to 41 represent heavy combat.

Psychometric Properties

The Combat Exposure Scale is easy to use and score. It has acceptable psychometric properties, including internal stability and test–retest reliability.

Keane, T., Fairbank, J., Caddell, J., Zimering, R., Taylor, K., & Mora, C. (1989). Clinical evaluation of a measure to assess combat exposure. Psychological Assessment, 1, 53-55.
Troyanskaya, M., Pastorek, N. J., Scheibel, R. S., Petersen, N. J., McCulloch, K., Wilde, E. A., . . . Levin, H. S. (2015). Combat Exposure, PTSD Symptoms, and Cognition Following Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury in OEF/OIF/OND Service Members and Veterans. Mil Med, 180(3), 285-289.


Document last updated March 2018