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Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)
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Supplemental: Cerebral Palsy (CP), Neuromuscular Disease (NMD) and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Short Description of Instrument
The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP-2) (Wagner et al., 2013) assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming as a measure of reading ability. Two levels of the test are available for ages 4–6 and ages 7–24. The test consists of 10 core and two supplemental subtests. Nine core and one supplemental subtest are for ages 4 to 6; seven core and both supplemental subtests are for ages 7 to 24. Four core subtests are timed.
The CTOPP-2 is a substantial modification of the first edition (CTOPP), and includes new normative data, items added to eliminate the floor effects, items added to extend the age range, and a phoneme isolation subtest.
Administration:  Paper-and-pencil,   individual,   face-to-face,   requires  examiner training
Accessibility: CFCS level II-III. Completion Time: 30 minutes. Ages: 4:0 – 24:11.
Norms: The standardization sample was 1,900 individuals ranging in age from 6 through 24 years. The demographic characteristics of the sample conform to those of the population reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States, and are, therefore, representative of the U.S. population.
Advantages: This instrument is one of the few comprehensive measures of phonological processing that is available for an extended age range including preschoolers; however, there are floor effects on some of the subtests at the lower ages.
The composite standard scores for Phonological Awareness Quotient (PAQ), Phonological Memory Quotient (PMQ), and Rapid Naming Quotient (RNQ) have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Subtest standard scores have a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. Percentiles and standard scores as well as age and grade equivalents are provided with the examiner's manual.
Both versions are individually administered, with the core subtests taking approximately 30 minutes total. Supplemental tests may also be administered. The test should be administered by trained examiners.
Scoring/Interpretation: The CTOPP-2 has 5 composites (M = 100; SD = 15) (Tennant, 2014): Phonological Awareness Composite Score (PACS), Phonological Memory Composite Score (PMCS), Rapid Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RSNCS), that can be calculated for all ages, Rapid Non- Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RNNCS) that is calculated for ages 4 to 6, and the Alternate Phonological Awareness Composite Score (APACS) calculated for ages 7 to 24.
Scoring Options: Computerized scoring assistant or manual scoring.
Wagner, R.K., Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., Pearson, N. A. (2013). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing - Second Edition (CTOPP-2). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Wagner, R., Torgesen, J., and Rashotte, C. (1999). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Examiner's Manual. Pearson Assessments: San Antonio, TX.
Additional References:
Ewing-Cobbs, L., Prasad, M., Swank, P., Kramar, L., Cox, C., Fletcher, J., Barnes, M., and Zhang, X. Arrested development and disrupted callosal microstructure following pediatric traumatic brain injury: relation to neurobehavioral outcomes. Neuroimage. 2008;42(4):1305-1315.
Tennant KE. Test Review: R. K. Wagner, J. K. Torgesen, C. A. Rashotte, & N. A. Pearson. (2013). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing-Second Edition (CTOPP-2). Austin, TX: PRO-ED. J Psychoeduc Assess. 2014;32(7):678-681.


Document last updated February 2018