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Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMT-R)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised
NeuroRehab Supplemental - Highly Recommended
Recommendations for Use: Indicated for studies requiring a measure of visual memory.
Supplemental: Cerebral Palsy (CP), Epilepsy, Mitochondrial Disease (Mito), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Sport-Related Concussion (SRC), Stroke, and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Short Description of Instrument
Author: Ralph H. B. Benedict, PhD
The Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R) can be used as part of a neuropsychological battery, as a screening measure, and as a repeatable measure to document changes over time.
Purpose: Measure of visuospatial memory
Age range:18 to 79 years
Administration: Individual
Administration time: 10-15 minutes (plus a 25 -minute delay between learning and delayed recall trials)
Scoring time: 10-15 minutes by experienced examiner
Comments/Special Instructions
The BVMT-R is designed for easy administration in clinical settings or at the bedside.
Six equivalent, alternate stimulus forms consisting of six geometric figures printed in a 2 x 3 array on separate pages.
In three Learning Trials, the participant views the stimulus page for 10 seconds and is asked to draw as many of the figures as possible in their correct location on a page in the response booklet. A Delayed Recall Trial is administered after a 25-minute delay. Lastly, a Recognition Trial, in which the participant is asked to identify which of 12 figures were included among the original geometric figures, is administered.
An optional Copy Trial may be administered to screen for severe visuoconstruction deficits and to help in scoring recall responses.
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: Twelve scores may be derived from BVMT-R performance. Recall performance is recorded for each of the immediate recall trials (Trial 1, Trial 2, and Trial 3) and for the delayed recall trial (Delayed Recall).
The recall scores are combined to form three additional summary measures of learning and memory.
Recognition Hits and False Alarms are recorded during the delayed recognition task. Recognition Hits are calculated as the number of correct "yes" responses to target items, and Recognition False Alarms are calculated as the number of incorrect "yes" responses to nontarget items.
Psychometric Properties: Reliability coefficients range from .96 to .97 for the three Learning Trials, .97 for Total Recall, and .97 for Delayed Recall. Test-retest reliability coefficients range from .60 for Trial 1 to .84 for Trial 3. The BVMT-R correlates most strongly with other tests of visual memory and less strongly with tests of verbal memory.
Strengths: The BVMT-R is briefer than most other visual memory measures. It offers six equivalent alternative forms, which makes it more clinically useful for serial evaluations. It also includes a 3-trial learning phase, allowing for examination of visual learning slope which more closely parallels common list learning verbal memory tests.
Weaknesses: Although classified as a visual memory measure, stimuli may be verbally encoded. Scores on the delayed recognition trial are limited in their distribution range, with many participants scoring at ceiling levels. The BVMT-R requires upper extremity function sufficient for drawing simple shapes.
Key Reference:
Benedict RHB, Schretlen D, Groninger L, Dobraski M, Shpritz B. Revision of the brief visuospatial memory test: Studies of normal performance, reliability, and validity. Psychol Assess. 1996;8(2):145-53.
Additional References:
Bailey KC, Soble JR, Bain KM, Fullen C. Embedded Performance Validity Tests in the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised: A Replication Study. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2018 Nov 1;33(7):895-900.
Benedict RH, Groninger L. Preliminary standardization of a new visuospatial memory test with six alternate forms. Clin Neuropsychol 1995 Feb; 9(1):11-6.
Campanholo KR, Conforto AB, Rimkus CM, Miotto EC. Cognitive and Functional Impairment in Stroke Survivors with Basilar Artery Occlusive Disease. Behav Neurol. 2015;2015:971514.
Diaz-Santos M, Suarez PA, Marquine MJ, Umlauf A, Rivera Mindt M, Artiola I Fortuny L, Heaton RK, Cherner M. Updated demographically adjusted norms for the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-revised and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-revised in Spanish-speakers from the U.S.-Mexico border region: The NP-NUMBRS project. Clin Neuropsychol. 2021 Feb;35(2):374-95.
Duff K. Demographically corrected normative data for the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised in an elderly sample. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2016;23(3):179-85.
Kane KD, Yochim BP. Construct validity and extended normative data for older adults for the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test, Revised. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2014 Nov;29(7):601-6.
Norman MA, Moore DJ, Taylor M, Franklin D Jr, Cysique L, Ake C, Lazarretto D, Vaida F, Heaton RK; HNRC Group. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2011 Aug;33(7):793-804.
Tam JW, Schmitter-Edgecombe M. The role of processing speed in the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - revised. Clin Neuropsychol. 2013;27(6):962-72.
Document last updated March 2024