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Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Beery-Buktenica Developmental of Visual Motor Integration Sixth Edition
Supplemental: Cerebral Palsy (CP), Mitochondrial Disease (Mito), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Neuromuscular Diseases (NMD), Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Exploratory: Sport-Related Concussion (SRC)
Short Description of Instrument
Developed in 2010, Beery VMI helps assess the extent to which individuals can integrate their visual and motor abilities. The test presents the participant with drawings of 24 geometric forms, arranged in developmental sequence from less to more complex. The participant simply copies these forms in the Test Booklet.
A Short Form, composed of 15 drawings, is often used with 2- to 8-year-old children.
Supplemental tests of Visual Perception and Motor Coordination are available.
The Beery VMI can be used by psychologists, learning disability specialists, school counselors, teachers, and other professionals to:
• Identify individuals who may have difficulty with visual-motor integration
Make appropriate referrals for needed services
Test the effectiveness of educational and other interventions
Evaluate neuropsychological problems in older adults
Inform diagnoses of dementia or Alzheimer's
The Beery VMI has been used in numerous studies of cerebral palsy, including comparative studies with typically developing peers, studies of brain behavior relationships, and intervention outcome studies.
Ages: 2-100 y
Administration: paper-pencil
Administration Time: 10-15 minutes
Scoring: Manual
Accessibility: CP MACS I-II
Norms: Normative sample was 1,737 individuals aged 2 to 18 years (2010) and 1,021 adults aged 19-100 (2006). In sixth edition updated norms for ages 2 through 18; adult norms are included for ages 19 and above but were not updated in this edition.
Comments/Special Instructions
3 individual tests:
    1. Visuomotor Integration
    2. Visual Perception
    3. Motor Coordination

Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: One point for each correct response. Discontinue after 3 incorrect responses on Visuomotor Integration and Visual Perception subtests. Discontinue at 5 minutes on the Motor Coordination subtest.
Psychometric Properties: High reliability (content sampling, internal consistency, time sampling, interscorer reliability) and validity (content, concurrent, construct, predictive); performance correlates with chronological age (.80-.95).
Strengths: The test is suitable for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors aged 2-100 years. The test is an economical and convenient screen for visual-motor deficits that can lead to learning, behavior, and neuropsychological problems.
Weaknesses: The Beery VMI was not developed or intended to be used to assess handwriting ability. (Pfeiffer, 2015) As such it should be used with caution as a tool to assess handwriting in children. There are also limitations of using the Beery VMI when determining the effectiveness of interventions. (Howe, 2013)
Sport-Related Concussion-Specific:
Strengths: The Beery VMI is used in other medical disorders that affect neurologic function.
Weaknesses: The scale is not widely used in concussion studies and though it may be part of an overall neuropsychological evaluation, it is unlikely to be a short stand-alone measure.
Key References:
Beery KE & Beery NA. The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration| Sixth Edition [Internet]. [cited 03 Aug 2023] Available from: Accessed 03 October 2023.
Beery, KE. Developmental test of visual motor integration: Administration, scoring, and teaching manual. 3. Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press; 1989.
Beery, KE. The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual motor integration: Administration, scoring, and teaching manual. 4. Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press; 1996.
Beery, KE.; Beery, NA. The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual motor integration: Administration, scoring, and teaching manual. 5. Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press; 2004.
Beery KE, Buktenica NA. Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI).Pearson Assessments. 2010.
Beery KE & Beery NA. The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (manual). Pearson Assessments. 2004.
Additional References:
Cho M, Kim D, Yang Y. Effects of visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015 Feb;27(2):411-3.
Howe TH, Roston KL, Sheu CF, Hinojosa J. Assessing handwriting intervention effectiveness in elementary school students: a two-group controlled study. Am J Occup Ther. 2013 Jan-Feb;67(1):19-26.
Jongmans M, Mercuri E, de Vries L, Dubowitz L, Henderson SE. Minor neurological signs and perceptual-motor difficulties in prematurely born children. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997 Jan;76(1):F9-14.
Rademaker KJ, Lam JN, Van Haastert IC, Uiterwaal CS, Lieftink AF, Groenendaal F, Grobbee DE, de Vries LS. Larger corpus callosum size with better motor performance in prematurely born children. Semin Perinatol. 2004 Aug;28(4):279-87.
Pfeiffer B, Moskowitz B, Paoletti A, Brusilovskiy E, Zylstra SE, Murray T. Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI): An Effective Outcome Measure for Handwriting Interventions for Kindergarten, First-Grade, and Second-Grade Students? Am J Occup Ther. 2015 Jul-Aug;69(4):6904350010p1-7.
Skranes J, Evensen KI, LØhaugen GC, Martinussen M, Kulseng S, Myhr G, Vik T, Brubakk AM. Abnormal cerebral MRI findings and neuroimpairments in very low birth weight (VLBW) adolescents. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2008 Jul;12(4):273-83.7
van Buuren LM, van der Aa NE, Dekker HC, Vermeulen RJ, van Nieuwenhuizen O, van Schooneveld MM, de Vries LS. Cognitive outcome in childhood after unilateral perinatal brain injury. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013 Oct;55(10):934-40.
Document last updated March 2024