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Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Stanford Sleepiness Scale
Supplemental: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD)
Short Description of Instrument
The Stanford Sleepiness Scale is used to quantify current sleepiness either during the day or night. The question measures where the participant rates their current level of sleepiness from 1=feeling active, wide awake to 7=no longer fighting sleep.
Population: Adults
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: Current level of sleepiness is scored on a 7-point scale.
Psychometric Properties: Data on the validity and reliability of the scale are sparse. The scale shows no correlations with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Sensitivity to changes has been reported in healthy individuals.
Strengths: Instrument is freely available and translated in many languages. Very brief and easy to administer throughout the day. It is useful for rating the sleepiness state of the individual at the time of testing.
Weaknesses: Lack of data on psychometric characteristics of the scale.
Key Reference:
Hoddes E, Zarcone V, Smythe H, Phillips R, Dement WC. Quantification of sleepiness: a new approach. Psychophysiology 1973 Jul;10(4):431-46.
Additional References:
Hoddes E, Dement W, Zarcone V. The development and use of the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Psychophysiology (1972) 9:150.
Seppi K, HÖgl B, Diem A, Peralta C, Wenning GK, Poewe W. Levodopa-induced sleepiness in the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord. 2006 Aug; 21(8):1281-33.
Walsh CM, Ruoff L, Walker K, Emery A, Varbel J, Karageorgiou E, Luong PN, Mance I, Heuer HW, Boxer AL, Grinberg LT, Kramer JH, Miller BL, Neylan TC. Sleepless Night and Day, the Plight of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. Sleep. 2017 Nov 1;40(11):zsx154.
Document Last Updated August 2022
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