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For more information on this instrument, please visit:
For more information the Qualiveen Short-Form, please visit:
Supplemental-Highly-Recommended: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)*
*Recommendation on Use: Indicated for studies targeted at evaluating the impact of urinary dysfunction, management and symptoms on one's feelings, fears and concerns. (Tate et al.,2020)
Short Description of Instrument
The Qualiveen-30 was developed to assess the impact of urinary problems on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with SCI. The 30-item questionnaire assesses 4 aspects of patients' lives: bother with limitations (9 items), frequency of limitations (8 items), fears (8 items), and feelings (5 items). (Bonniaud e tal., 2008; Costa et al., 2001)
The SF-Qualiveen is an 8-item short version of the Qualiveen-30 with the 2 most responsive items per domain. (Bonniaud et al., 2008). It was developed "to address the needs of large clinical trials and long-term monitoring, in which efficiency may compete with precision of measurement,…" (Bonniaud et al., 2008) The four domains on the SF-Qualiveen include bother with limitations (2 items), frequency of limitations (2 items), fears (2 items), and feelings (2 items).
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Qualiveen 30 Scoring: Each Qualiveen domain score is computed as an average of the scores for the items in each domain. Qualiveen individual items are equally weighted. Response options follow 5-point Likert-type scales: 0 indicates no impact of urinary problems on HRQOL and 4 indicates a high adverse impact. The overall QOL score is calculated from the mean of 4 domains. (Bonniaud e tal., 2004)
0 = Not at all; 1 = Slightly; 2 = Moderately; 3 = Quite a bit; 4 = Extremely
SF-Qualiveen Scoring: The response scale for items 1, 2, 5, 6, 7,8 of the Qualiveen-SF is:
0 = Not at all; 1 = Slightly; 2 = Moderately; 3 = Quite a bit; 4 = Extremely
Items 3 and 4 of the Qualiveen SF use the following response scale:
4 = Never; 3 = Rarely; 2 = From time to time; 1 = Often; 0 = Always
Psychometric Properties:
Reliability: Test-retest reliability is high for total score and subscales. (Tate et al., 2020)
Validity: High internal consistency. (Tate et al., 2020) Significant correlations with reference measure. (Costa et al., 2001; Bonniard et al, 2008)  Weak correlations with urinary symptoms. (D'Ancona et al., 2009) SF scores different between patients and controls. (Reuvers et al., 2017)
Responsiveness: Short form (8 items) and long version (30 items) have similar levels of responsiveness (SRM 0.75-1.62) (Tate et al., 2020; Bonniard et al., 2008) SCI trials showed significant change in Qualiveen scores. (D'Ancona et al., 2009; Martens et al., 2011; Vastenholt et al., 2003)
Strengths/Weaknesses: The Qualiveen has been used in both Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and SCI populations. There is considerable evidence supporting its validity in SCI (Costa et al, 2001, Bonniaud et al, 2008) and reference scores are available. Additional evidence examining its responsiveness is warranted.
Key References:
Bonniard V, Bryant D, Parratte B, Guyatt G. Development and validation of the short form of a urinary quality of life questionnaire: SF-Qualiveen. J Urol. 2008;180(6):2592-2598.
Costa P, Perrouin-Verbe B, Colvez A, Didier J, Marquis P, Marrel A, et al. Quality of life in spinal cord injury patients with urinary difficulties. development and validation of qualiveen. Eur Urol 2001;39:107-113.
Additional References:
Acquadro C, Jambon B, Ellis D, Marquis P. Language and translations issues. In Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in clinical trials. - Second edition. (Spilker B, ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1995, 575-585.
Bonniaud V, Bryant D, Parratte B, Gallien P, Guyatt G. Qualiveen: a urinary disorder-specific instrument for use in clinical trials in multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87(12):1661-1663.
Bonniaud V, Bryant D, Parratte B, Guyatt G. Qualiveen, a urinary-disorder specific instrument: 0.5 corresponds to the minimal important difference. J Clin Epidemiol 2008;61(5):505-510.
Bonniaud V, Bryant D, Pilati C, Menarini M, Lamartina M, Guyatt G, et al. Italian version of qualiveen-30: cultural adaptation of a neurogenic urinary disorder-specific instrument. Neurourol Urodyn 2011;30:354-359.
Bonniaud V, Jackowski D, Parratte B, Paulseth R, Grad S, Margetts P, et al. Quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients with urinary disorders: discriminative validation of the English version of Qualiveen. Qual Life Res 2005;14:425-431.
Bonniaud V, Parratte B, Amarenco G, Jackowski D, Didier J-P, Guyatt G. Measuring quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients with urinary disorders using the Qualiveen questionnaire. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:1317-1323.
Ciudin A, Franco A, Diaconu MG, Peri L, Vivas V, Gonzalez MA, et al. Quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients: translationand validation of the Spanish version of Qualiveen. Neurourol Urodyn 2012;31:517-520.
D'Ancona CA, Tamanini JT, Botega N, Lavoura N, Ferreira R, Leitao V, et al. Quality of life of neurogenic patients: translation and validation of the Portuguese version of Qualiveen. Int Urol Nephrol 2009;41:29-33.
Guillotreau J, Castel-Lacanal E, RoumiguiÉ M, Bordier B, Doumerc N, De Boissezon X, et al. Prospective study of the impact on quality of life of cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion for neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Neurourol Urodyn 2011;30:1503-1506.
Karapolat H, Akkoc Y, Eyigor S, Tanigor G. Bladder-related quality of life in people with neurological disorders: reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the King's health questionnaire in people with spinal cord injury. Turk J Urol 2018;44: 411-417.
Martens FM, Den Hollander PP, Snoek GJ, Koldewijn EL, Van Kerrebroeck PE, Heesakkers JP. Quality of life in complete spinal cord injury patients with a Brindley bladder stimulator compared to a matched control group. Neurourol Urodyn 2011;30:551-555.
Milinis K, Tennant A, Young CA, TONiC Study Group. Rasch analysis of SF-qualiveen in multiple sclerosis. Neurourol Urodyn 2017 APR;36:1161-1166.
Nikfallah A, Rezaali S, Mohammadi N, Abrishamkar M, Rezaei E, Sahraian MA, et al. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the qualiveen-30 questionnaire in Persian for patients with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Low Urin Tract Symptoms 2015 Jan;7:42-49.
Pannek J, Mark R, Stohrer M, Schurch B. Quality of life in German-speaking patients with spinal cord injuries and bladder dysfunctions. validation of the German version of the Qualiveen questionnaire. Urol A 2007;46:1416-1421.
Reuvers SHM, Korfage IJ, Scheepe JR, t Hoen LA, Sluis TAR, Blok BFM. The validation of the Dutch SF-Qualiveen, a questionnaire on urinary-specific quality of life, in spinal Cord injury patients. BMC Urol 2017;17:88.
Scivoletto G, Musco S, De nunzio C, Del Popolo G. Development and validation of the Italian version of the intermittent self-catheterization questionnaire. Ital J Urol Nephrol 2017; 69:384-390.
Tate DG, Wheeler T, Lane GI, Forchheimer M, Anderson KD, Biering-Sorensen F, Cameron AP, Santacruz BG, Jakeman LB, Kennelly MJ, Kirshblum S, Krassioukov A, Krogh K, Mulcahey MJ, Noonan VK, Rodriguez GM, Spungen AM, Tulsky D, Post MW. Recommendations for evaluation of neurogenic bladder and bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury and/or disease. J Spinal Cord Med. 2020;43(2):141-164.
Vastenholt J, Snoek G, Buschman H, Van Der Aa H, Alleman E, Ijzerman MJ. A 7-year follow-up of sacral anterior root stimulation for bladder control in patients with a spinal cord injury: quality of life and users' experiences. Spinal Cord 2003;41:397-402.
Welk B, Morrow S, Madarasz W, Baverstock R, Macnab J, Sequeira K. The validity and reliability of the neurogenic bladder symptom score. J Urol 2014 Aug;192:452-457.
Yoshida M, Igawa Y, Higashimura S, Suzuki M, Niimi A, Sanada H. Translation and reliability and validity testing of a Japanese version of the intermittent self-catheterization questionnaire among disposable and reusable catheter users. Neurourol Urodyn 2017;36:1356-1362.
Document last updated November 2021