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Animal Naming
Information about the instrument can be found here: Animal Naming
NeuroRehab Supplemental - Highly Recommended
Recommendations for Use: Indicated for studies requiring a measure for language.
Supplemental: Stroke
Short Description of Instrument
The Animal Naming instrument tests semantic fluency by asking the participant to list as many animals as possible in one minute.
Comments/Special Instructions
Instruction: "Tell me the names of as many animals as you can think of, as quickly as possible."
Procedure: Time for 60 seconds and record all responses.
If the person pauses and says nothing for 15 seconds, say "Can you tell me more animals?"
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: Count the total number of animals (NOT including repetitions or non-animal words).
Psychometric Properties: Norms are based on age, education, sex and race/ethnicity.
Strengths: Animal Fluency has a long history of use in stroke, neurodegenerative disease (e.g., PPAs), epilepsy, and many other disorders of the CNS that can affect language. Quick and easy to administer. Generally normally distributed with strong psychometric properties. Representative normative standards available (e.g., Heaton et al., 2004; Mayo's Older Americans Normative Study, Lucas et al., 1998, 2005). There is some neuroanatomical specificity to the left posterior temporal lobe, particularly temporal-parietal junction (e.g., Baldo et al., 2006; Grogan et al., 2009; Melrose et al., 2010), though other nonspecific cognitive skills/brain regions also play a role in performance.
Weaknesses: Less use in children. Strongly related to education/IQ.
Baldo JV, Schwartz S, Wilkins D, Dronkers NF. Role of frontal versus temporal cortex in verbal fluency as revealed by voxel-based lesion symptom mapping. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2006;12(6):896-900.
Grogan A, Green DW, Ali N, Crinion JT, Price CJ. Structural correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency ability in first and second languages. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19(11):2690-2698.
Heaton RK, Miller SW, Taylor MJ, Grant I. Revised comprehensive norms for an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery: Demographically adjusted neuropsychological norms for African American and Caucasian adults, professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources. 2004.
Lucas JA, Ivnik RJ, Smith GE, Bohac DL, Tangalos EG, Graff-Radford NR, Petersen RC. Mayo's older Americans normative studies: category fluency norms. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1998 Apr;20(2):194-200.
Lucas JA, Ivnik RJ, Smith GE, Ferman, TJ, Willis FB, Peterson, RC, Graff-Radford NR. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Norms for Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Animal Naming, Token Test, Wrat-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation. Clin. Neuropsychol. 2005;19(2):243-269.
McKenna P, Parry R. Category specificity in the naming of natural and man-made objects: Normative data from adults and children. Neuropsych Rehabil. 1994;4(3):255-281.
Melrose RJ, Campa OM, Harwood DG, Osato S, Mandelkern MA, Sultzer DL. The neural correlates of naming and fluency deficits in Alzheimer's disease: an FDG-PET study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;24(8):885-893.
Rosen WG. Verbal fluency in aging and dementia. J. Clin. Neuropsychol. 1980;2(2):135-146.
Sager MA, Hermann BP, LaRue A. Screening for Dementia in Community-based Memory Clinics. Wisconsin Medical Journal. 2006;105(7):25-29.
Tombaugh TN, Kozak J, Rees L. Normative Data Stratified by Age and Education for Two Measures of Verbal Fluency: FAS and Animal NamingArch Clin Neuropsych. 1999;14(2):167-177.
Document last updated January 2022