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Holland Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (HSDQ)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Holland Sleep Disorder Questionnaire
Please email the author for information about the instrument: Dr. Gerard A. Kerkhof
Supplemental: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)
Short Description of Instrument
The Holland Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (HSDQ) is a self-assessment questionnaire for sleep disorders based on the ICSD-2. It consists of 34-items and queries study participants about the frequency of various symptoms over last 3 months.
Construct measured: Sleep symptoms
Generic vs. disease specific: Generic
Means of administration: Written
Intended respondent: Study participant
# of items: 34
# of subscales and names of sub-scales: 10
# of items per sub-scale: Varies.
Time to complete: average 7.9 minutes
The HSDQ lists 32 sleep related statements. Participants are requested to indicate to what extent they are applicable. The past three months should be considered when responding.
There are 5 response options: 1 = not at all applicable, 2 = usually not applicable, 3 = applicable at times, 4 = usually applicable, and 5 = applicable.
Two scores are calculated. The first score screens for any sleep disorder whereas the second score helps identify which of the 6 six different sleep disorder categories a subject fits into. Different cut-off scores depending on scale. Cut-off scores established statistically.
Psychometric Properties:
Validity: 1) Construct validity - principal component analysis yielded 6 factors corresponding to the 6 different categories; 2) Predictive validity -- researchers generated cutoff scores using one cohort and then tested the criteria out on a second cohort; gold standard was diagnosis by a sleep med expert; For sleep disorder or not, 90.5% of the patients and 86.0% of the control subjects were classified correctly, with an overall percentage of 88.0% and a kappa value of 0.75 (P < 0.001). For what type of sleep disorder, the percentages of correctly classified patients ranged between 81.5 and 98%, insomniacs representing the lowest range limit. Overall (including the control subjects), 84.5% of the participants were classified correctly, with a kappa value of 0.80 (P < 0.001).
Reliability: Cronbach's alpha of 0.90 was obtained, while the coefficients for the six categories of sleep disorders ranged from 0.73 to 0.81. Pearson's correlation coefficients measuring test-retest reliability for the two test sessions of ranged from 0.65 to 0.78 (all P < 0.001), while the overall correlation was 0.79 (P < 0.001).
1) Questionnaire based on latest AASM classification. 2) Development of the instrument included both an origination and validation cohort. Predictive validity is a strong form of validity. 3) Used in over 30 studies already
1) Longer survey with 34 items but actual time to complete in prior studies not long 2) Not tested in ME/CFS subjects
Kerkhof GA, Geuke ME, Brouwer A, Rijsman RM, Schimsheimer RJ, Van Kasteel V. Holland Sleep Disorders Questionnaire: a new sleep disorders questionnaire based on the International classification of Sleep Disorder-2. J Sleep Res. 2013;22(1):104-107.


Document last updated July 2019