Computerized Test of Attentional Performance (TAP 2.3) - Divided Attention subtest
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Exploratory: Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)
|Short Description of Instrument||
The Test of Attentional Performance is used to evaluate the effectiveness of behavior in everyday activities. Inattentiveness can lead to not noticing important information and difficulties in recalling specific details.
"In everyday life, the capacity to pay attention to several things at once is of great importance. This requires the ability for divided attention to simultaneously ongoing processes." (PsyTest)
In this computerized test, a visual and an auditory task must be processed in parallel. Two forms of this test may be administered: a synchronized and an asynchronized presentation of visual and auditory stimuli. The visual part consists of a square of 4 x 4 points, marking 16 positions where small crosses appear forming different pattern. The participant is requested to push a button as quickly as possible as soon as 4 crosses form a quadrant. In the auditory part alternating high and low tones are presented. The participant is requested to push a button as quickly as possible as soon as two high or two low tones are presented consecutively.
The test battery has been used among healthy adults as well as in a wide range of different clinical samples. The different versions of the test battery are available in German, English, French, and Italian, partly in Spanish, Dutch, Danish, Swedish and Finnish.
Execution time: between 2.5 – 6 minutes
Outcome variables are percentiles of median and standard deviation of the visual and auditory reaction times as well as of the sum of omissions and errors (=T-score visual; T-score auditory; T-score omissions and errors).
The Computerized Test of Attentional Performance with its subtest divided attention is quick and simple to perform. The available normative data covers broadly the typical age range of patients with SAH. It is available in multiple languages. For these reasons, the Swiss national standard of neuropsychological assessment after SAH includes the Computerized Test of Attentional Performance with its subtest divided attention. The test has successfully been used in SAH research before (see references).
Bellebaum C, Sch?fers L, Schoch B, Wanke I, Stolke D, Forsting M, Daum I. Clipping versus coiling: neuropsychological follow up after aneurismal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2004;26(8):1081–1092.
Hütter BO, Kreitschmann-Andermahr I, Gilsbach JM. Cognitive deficits in the acute stage after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 1998;43(5):1054–1065.
Hütter BO, Gilsbach JM. Early neuropsychological sequelae of aneurysm surgery and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1996;138(12):1370–1378; discussion 1378–1379.
Stienen MN, Smoll NR, Weisshaupt R, Fandino J, Hildebrandt G, Studerus-Germann A, Schatlo B. Delayed cerebral ischemia predicts neurocognitive impairment following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. World Neurosurg. 2014;82(5):e599–e605.
Stienen MN, Zweifel-Zehnder AE, Chicherio M, Studerus-Germann A, Bl?si S, Rossi S, Gutbrod K, Schmid N, Beaud V, Mondadori C, Brugger P, Sacco L, Müri R, Hildebrandt G, Keller E, Regli L, Fandino J, Mariani L, Raabe A, Daniel RT, Reinert M, Robert R, Schatlo B, Bijlenga P, Schaller K, Monsch AU, on behalf of the Swiss SOS study group. Neuropsychological testing after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Swiss Medical Forum. 2015;15(48):1122–1127.
Zimmermann, P. & Fimm, B. (1992). Testbatterie zur Aufmerksamkeitsprüfung. Freiburg: Psytest.
Zweifel-Zehnder AE, Stienen MN, Chicherio C, Studerus-Germann A, Bl?si S, Rossi S, Gutbrod K, Schmid N, Beaud V, Mondadori C, Brugger P, Sacco L, Müri R, Hildebrandt G, Fournier JY, Keller E, Regli L, Fandino J, Mariani L, Raabe A, Daniel RT, Reinert M, Robert T, Schatlo B, Bijlenga P, Schaller K, Monsch AU; Swiss SOS study group. Call for uniform neuropsychological assessment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Swiss recommendations. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2015;157(9):1449–1458.