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Positive Affect and Well-Being Scale of the Neurology Quality of Life (Neuro-QOL) Measure
Supplemental: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)
*Note: Not recommended for SCI-Pediatric (normed for adults only)
Short Description of Instrument
The Positive Affect and Well-Being (PAW) Scale is a 23-item calibrated bank and 9-item short form measure that identifies the "aspects of a person's life that relate to a sense of well-being, life satisfaction, or an overall sense of purpose and meaning" (Salzman et al., 2013). The PAW item bank was developed through a multi-step process to identify all Neuro-Qol domains.
Note-Spinal Cord Injury: Bertisch and colleagues have developed a Positive Affect and Well-Being Bank (PAWB) for individuals with SCI (Bertish et al., 2015).The PAWB is part of the SCI-QOL developed by Tulsky et al (2015) and is a psychometrically robust measurement tool with flexible options for administration.
A copy of the SCI-QOL PWAB is available from D.Tulsky or
Scale ranges from 1 to 5:
1 = "Never"
2 = "Rarely"
3 = "Sometimes"
4 = "Often"
5 = "Always"
Bertisch H, Kalpakjian CZ, Kisala PA, Tulsky DS. Measuring positive affect and well-being after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Positive Affect and Well-being bank and short form. The journal of spinal cord medicine. 2015;38(3):356-365.
Carlozzi, N. E., Tulsky, D. S., & Kisala, P. A. (2011). Traumatic brain injury patient-reported outcome measure: identification of health-related quality-of-life issues relevant to individuals with traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 92(10 Suppl), S52-S60.  
Cella D, Nowinski C, Peterman A, et al. The neurology quality-of-life measurement initiative. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2011;92(10 Suppl):S28-36.
Gershon RC, Lai JS, Bode R, et al. Neuro-QOL: quality of life item banks for adults with neurological disorders: item development and calibrations based upon clinical and general population testing. Quality of life research: an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation. 2012;21(3):475-486.
Kennedy, P., Lude, P., ElfstrÖm, M. L., & Smithson, E. (2010). Cognitive appraisals, coping and quality of life outcomes: a multi-centre study of spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Spinal Cord, 48(10), 762-769.  
Lai JS, Nowinski C, Victorson D, et al. Quality-of-life measures in children with neurological conditions: pediatric Neuro-QOL. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair. 2012;26(1):36-47.
Perez L, Huang J, Jansky L, et al. Using focus groups to inform the Neuro-QOL measurement tool: exploring patient-centered, health-related quality of life concepts across neurological conditions. The Journal of neuroscience nursing: journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses. 2007;39(6):342-353.
Salsman JM, Victorson D, Choi SW, et al. Development and validation of the positive affect and well-being scale for the neurology quality of life (Neuro-QOL) measurement system. Quality of life research: an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation. 2013;22(9):2569-2580.
Tulsky DS, Kisala PA, Victorson D, et al. Overview of the Spinal Cord Injury - Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. The journal of spinal cord medicine. 2015;38(3):257-269.
Tulsky DS, Kisala PA, Victorson D, et al. Methodology for the development and calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks. The journal of spinal cord medicine. 2015;38(3):270-287.


Document last updated June 2020