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International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: International Prostate Symptom Scale
Supplemental: Parkinson's Disease (PD)
Short Description of Instrument
The International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) has become the international standard questionnaire used for assessing lower urinary tract symptoms in men but it is also valid and reliable for women as well.
The IPSS is essentially the AUA-7 scale (American Urological Association -7, developed by the American Urological Association in 1992) plus an eighth question on quality of life (QOL).
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: The IPSS is scored from 0-35, with higher scores indicating more and more severe symptoms. Nocturia is scored from 0 to 5 (five or more times per night) as the actual voiding frequency per night.
Other symptoms are scored on a frequency scale from 0 to 5: 0 (not at all); 1 (less than once every five times); 2 (less than half the time); 3 (about half the time); 4 (more than half the time); and 5 (almost always). The scores for each item are summed.
Strengths: Globally recognized and most common urinary symptom scale being used. Validated in women and men reporting lower urinary tract symptoms. Is a scoring system of severity of urinary symptoms.
Weaknesses: Not been validated in PD, however, has been used in different studies evaluating urinary symptoms in PD (listed in references section below).
Key Reference:
Barry MJ, Fowler FJ Jr, O'Leary MP, Bruskewitz RC, Holtgrewe HL, Mebust WK, Cockett AT. The American Urological Association symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association. J Urol. 1992 Nov;148(5):1549-57; discussion 1564.
Additional Reference:
Okamura K, Nojiri Y, Osuga Y, Tange C. Psychometric Analysis of International Prostate Symptom Score for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. Urology. 2009 Jun;73(6):1199-202.
van Venrooij GE, Boon TA, de Gier RP. International Prostate Symptom Score and Quality of Life Assessment Versus Urodynamic Parameters in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Symptoms. J Urol. 1995 May;153(5):1516-9.
Parkinson's Disease-Specific References:
Araki I, Kuno S. Assessment of voiding dysfunction in Parkinson's disease by the international prostate symptom score. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 Apr;68(4):429-33.
Brusa L, Ponzo V, Stefani A, Ceravolo R, Palermo G, Agr? EF, Viselli F, Altavista MC, Iani C, Stocchi F, Stanzione P, Vitale C. Extended release levodopa at bedtime as a treatment for nocturiain Parkinson's disease: An open label study. J Neurol Sci. 2020 Mar 15;410:116625.
Jia C, Cui X, Yoshimura N, Mao W, Xu E, Wang Q, Ou T. Assessment and Management of Urinary Dysfunction in 187 Patients with Parkinson's Disease. J Parkinsons Dis. 2020;10(3):993-1001.
McClurg D, Panicker J, Walker RW, Cunnington A, Deane KHO, Harari D, Elders A, Booth J, Hagen S, Mason H, Stratton S. Stimulation of the tibial nerve: a protocol for a multicentred randomised controlled trial for urinary problems associated with Parkinson's disease-STARTUP. BMJ Open. 2020 Feb 17;10(2):e034887.
Ragab MM, Mohammed ES. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients at the urologic clinic. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011 Sep;30(7):1258-61.
Winge K, Skau AM, Stimpel H, Nielsen KK, Werdelin L. Prevalence of bladder dysfunction in Parkinsons disease. Neurourol Urodyn. 2006;25(2):116-22.
Document last updated August 2022