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Berlin Questionnaire
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Berlin Questionnaire
The instrument is freely available.
Supplemental: Parkinson's Disease (PD)
Short Description of Instrument
The Berlin questionnaire measures sleep apnea and consists of ten questions plus information on height and weight arranged in three categories: snoring and cessation of breathing (category 1; five questions); symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness (category 2; four questions); and BMI and hypertension (category 3; one question and height and weight information).
Comments/Special Instructions
The Berlin Questionnaire is a screening tool.
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: Positive scores in 2 or more categories suggest that the respondent has a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Strengths: Modest to high sensitivity to detect clinically relevant OSA in patients with cardio- or cerebro-vascular disease/risk factors, surgical patients, and in general population.
Weaknesses: Low specificity to detect clinically significant apnea
Key Reference:
Chung F, Yegneswaran B, Liao P, Chung SA, Vairavanathan S, Islam S, Khajehdehi A, Shapiro CM. Validation of the Berlin questionnaire and American Society of Anesthesiologists checklist as screening tools for obstructive sleep apnea in surgical patients. Anesthesiology. 2008 May;108(5):822-30.
Additional References:
Chiu HY, Chen PY, Chuang LP, Chen NH, Tu YK, Hsieh YJ, Wang YC, Guilleminault C. Diagnostic accuracy of the Berlin questionnaire, STOP-BANG, STOP, and Epworth sleepiness scale in detecting obstructive sleep apnea: A bivariate meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2017 Dec;36:57-70.
Netzer NC, Hoegel JJ, Loube D, Netzer CM, Hay B, Alvarez-Sala R, Strohl KP; Sleep in Primary Care International Study Group. Prevalence of symptoms and risk of sleep apnea in primary care. Chest. 2003 Oct;124(4):1406-14.
Netzer NC, Stoohs RA, Netzer CM, Clark K, Strohl KP. Using the Berlin Questionnaire to identify patients at risk for the sleep apnea syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Oct 5;131(7):485-91.
Document Last Updated August 2022