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Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Sleep (SCOPA-SLEEP)
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>Scale for Outcomes of Parkinson's Disease-Sleep
Supplemental - Highly Recommended: Parkinson's Disease (PD)
Recommendations for use: For research or clinical purposes - it could be used as a screening instrument or for rating severity of nighttime sleep disturbances or daytime sleepiness.
Supplemental: Huntington's Disease (HD)
Short Description of Instrument
Summary/Overview of Instrument: The SCOPA-Sleep (Scale for Outcomes of Parkinson's Disease-Sleep) is a patient-completed instrument developed originally for research in Parkinson's disease that addresses both nighttime sleep problems and daytime sleepiness. Its questions focus on experiences over the past month. It has two questions on the use of sleeping medications, one question on an overall global perception of sleep at night (a nighttime scale - NS), 6 questions on sleep patterns at night and 6 questions on sleep in the day (a daytime sleepiness scale - DS).
Generic vs. disease-specific: Developed for use in Parkinson's disease. It has been used in one study of Huntington's disease patients and controls.
Intended use of instrument/purpose of tool: For research or clinical purposes-it could be used as a screening instrument or for rating severity of nighttime sleep disturbances or daytime sleepiness.
# of items: 14 items:
    • 2 questions on use of sleeping medications
    • 1 question about global perception of sleep at night, not included in total NS score
    • NS subscale: 5 items, score range 0-15 
    • DS subscale: 6 items, score range 0-18 

Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: With the exception of the one question on use of sleep medications in which the names of medications are listed with doses and frequency of use, all 13 other items are Likert-type, with 4 to seven options such as "not at all," "a little," "quite a bit," and "a lot". All 11 questions from the two subscales, NS and DS have 4 options which are scored 0-3. Subscale totals are easily calculated though summing the totals of all items in that subscale.
Huntington's Disease-Specific:
Standardization of scores to a reference population (z scores, T scores, etc.): Insufficient research data to convert subscale scores to standardized scores, either with reference to normal population or manifest HD patients, presymptomatic gene carriers or controls.
If scores have been standardized to a reference population, indicate frame of reference for scoring (general population, HD subjects, other disease groups, etc.): Not available.
Psychometric Properties:
Parkinson's Disease-Specific:
Internal consistency: Internal consistency of the nighttime sleep and daytime sleepiness scales were 0.88 and 0.91, respectively (Cronbach a).
Test-retest reliability: Test-retest reliabilities of the nighttime sleep and daytime sleepiness scales were 0.94 and 0.89, respectively (intraclass correlation coefficient).
Construct validity: Found to correlate highly with other scales that measure similar constructs. Correlation between the nighttime sleep scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was 0.83 (P < .001), and the correlation between the daytime sleepiness scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was 0.81 (P < .001).
Huntington's Disease-Specific:
Reliability: Test-retest or intra-interview (within rater) reliability: (as applicable): not assessed in HD populations. Inter-interview (between-rater) reliability (as applicable): Not assessed in HD populations. Internal consistency: Cronbach's alpha for SCOPA-NS 0.89 and for SCOPA- DS 0.85 in HD sample (Aziz et al., 2010).
Construct validity: In HD subjects the NS subscale correlated highly with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (r=0.83) in a small HD sample (Aziz et al., 2010) and the DS subscale correlated highly with a measure of daytime sleepiness, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r=0.75).
Diagnostic Sensitivity and Specificity, if applicable (in general population, HD population- premanifest/ manifest, other disease groups): Not appropriate for diagnosis of sleep disorders; rather, it is useful for screening and for measurement of the constructs of nighttime sleep problems and daytime sleepiness.
Strengths: No floor or ceiling effects. Can be completed within 5-10 minutes. Translated in several languages.
Key Reference:
Marinus J, Visser M, van Hilten JJ, Lammers GJ, Stieggelbout AM. Assessment of Sleep and Sleepiness in Parkinson Disease. Sleep 2003 Dec 15;26(8):1049-54.
Additional References:
Aziz NA, Anguelova GV, Marinus J, Lammers GJ, Roos RA. Sleep and circadian rhythm alterations correlate with depression and cognitive impairment in Huntington's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010 Jun;16(5):345-50.
Hagell P, Westergren A, Janelidze S, Hansson O. The Swedish SCOPA-SLEEP for assessment of sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. Qual Life Res. 2016 Oct;25(10):2571-2577.
HÖgl B, Arnulf I, Comella C, Ferreira J, Iranzo A, Tilley B, Trenkwalder C, Poewe W, Rascol O, Sampaio C, Stebbins GT, Schrag A, Goetz CG. Scales to assess sleep impairment in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations. Mov Disord. 2010 Dec 15;25(16):2704-16.
Martinez-Martin P, Visser M, Rodriguez-Blazquez C, Marinus J, Chaudhuri KR, van Hilten JJ; SCOPA-Propark Group; ELEP Group. SCOPA-sleep and PDSS: two scales for assessment of sleep disorder in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2008 Sep 15;23(12):1681-8.
Setthawatcharawanich S, Limapichat K, Sathirapanya P, Phabphal K. Validation of the Thai SCOPA-sleep scale for assessment of sleep and sleepiness in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011 Feb;94(2):179-84.
Document Last Updated August 2022