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NINDS CDE Notice of Copyright
Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Neurodegenerative Diseases Scale (GIND)
Please email the author for information about obtaining the instrument: Dr. Leslie Cloud,
Can be licensed through VCU Innovation Gateway ( for a nominal fee (reference invention # CLO-11-067 in all correspondence).
Supplemental: Parkinson's Disease (PD)
Short Description of Instrument
As a Likert-type scale, the GIND asks patients to rate each of their GI symptoms on a 0-5 scale with higher scores representing more severe GI dysfunction. The GIND only covers the 2 weeks prior to survey. It is therefore suitable for longitudinal use to track changes in GI symptoms over time. It is especially useful as a clinical trial outcome measure for tracking response to GI interventions over time.  It covers all of the GI symptoms known to occur in PD (drooling, dysphagia, heartburn, reflux, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, early satiety, bloating, abdominal pain, gas, stool frequency, stool consistency, defecatory dysfunction, and weight loss) as well as the impact of these symptoms on mood and activities of daily living. There are two sub-sections within it to evaluate symptoms of gastroparesis and constipation specifically if desired.  
Comments/Special Instructions
Licensed/Used in the following PD Clinical Trials:
    • NCT 01536015: ROADMAP study by UCB Pharma
    • NCT 02838797: RQ-00000010 for gastroparesis & constipation in PD
    • NCT 02005029- Erythromycin in PD

Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: The total score is a simple sum of the numerical scores for each of the 18 questions (Range 0-90).
Psychometric Properties: The overall Cronbach's alpha is 0.85 (95% CI 0.794, 0.896). The overall alpha did not improve substantially by deletion of any individual question, suggesting no problematic questions.  
Strengths: It is easy to administer (takes <10 minutes), has undergone validation in two PD cohorts across two different institutions, and covers full spectrum of GI dysfunction in PD patients.
Weaknesses: No published manuscripts on the validation work to date (only published in abstract form).
Key Reference:
Cloud L. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease: Prevalence, Characterization, and Relationship to Disease Stage. Master's Thesis (45 pages). Committee Chair / Thesis Adviser: Jinnah, Hyder. Committee Members: Manatunga, Amita; Boring, John R; McGowanJr.,John E. Program: Clinical Research Curriculum Program. Permanent url:
Additional Reference:
Austin K, Vijayakumar D, Norris V, Wan W, and Cloud L. Further validation of a scale to measure gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2016 Sep 07;31(9):e1-e13.
Document last updated August 2022