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NINDS CDE Notice of Copyright
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)
Availability
The instrument is freely available here: Glasgow Coma Scale Link
Classification
Supplemental – Highly Recommended:  Stroke (based on study type, disease stage and disease type)
Short Description of Instrument
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was developed to overcome the misunderstandings and confusion about comatose patients. The GCS is also used to assess neurological trauma as well as to document and predict neurological changes. It is considered the gold standard in this regard and is widely used.
Scoring
Three questions must be answered in regards to unconsciousness and coma with the first addressing eye opening, the second motor function and the third verbal response. Scores range from 3-15 total points with lower scores indicating patients in comatose.
References
Balestreri M, Czosnyka M, Chatfield DA, Steiner LA, Schmidt EA, Smielewski P, . . . Pickard JD. Predictive value of Glasgow Coma Scale after brain trauma: change in trend over the past ten years. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004;75(1), 161–162.
 
Marmarou A, Lu J, Butcher I, McHugh GS, Murray GD, Steyerberg EW, . . . Maas AI. Prognostic value of the Glasgow Coma Scale and pupil reactivity in traumatic brain injury assessed pre-hospital and on enrollment: an IMPACT analysis. J Neurotrauma 2007;24(2), 270–280.
 
Sternbach GL. The Glasgow coma scale. J Emerg Med 2000;19(1), 67–71.
 
Stocchetti N, Pagan F, Calappi E, Canavesi K, Beretta L, Citerio G, . . . Colombo A. Inaccurate early assessment of neurological severity in head injury. J Neurotrauma 2004;21(9), 1131–1140.
 
Teasdale G, Jennett B. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet 1974;2(7872), 81–84.
 
Teasdale G, Maas A, Lecky F, Manley G, Stocchetti N, Murray G. The Glasgow Coma Scale at 40 years: standing the test of time. Lancet Neurol 2014;13(8), 844–854.
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